Maithili, just as the name even its dialect is just as sweet! Maithili is a language which is predominantly spoken in the northern parts of Bihar and in Nepal, which refers to the ancient region of Mithilanchal ruled by King Janaka. In Nepal, Maithili is the second most-used language and is used in almost all kinds of written, spoken and educational work. In India, Maithili has been included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution, which means that it can be officially used by the people and the government for official use. It is one of the major languages spoken in Bihar.
This language is divided as the one spoken in Nepal which is the Nepali Maithili while the one spoken in India(Bihar) which is the Indian Maithili. Maithili derives its name from Mithila, the modern day Janakpur. It is also known as Tirhutia since Mithila is also known as Tirhut. The natives of Mithila using the Maithili language are called Maithils. It is an Indo-Aryan language, having a wide geographic distribution according to the dialects that are spoken throughout particular regions. Many foreign researchers have conducted historical surveys and studied about Maithili grammar, comparative linguistics, etc.
Maithili has also been recognized at an international level. According to a recent survey, there is approximately over 30 million of the population of India residing in the northern Bihar, that speaks Maithili. It is the sixteenth most spoken language in India, being the fortieth around the globe. Many researches compare Maithili’s dialect with that of Bengali and Hindi, while some claim it to be a sister language of Bengali, having similarity with Nepali languages, and some don’t find a connection to both the dialects at all.
Cites of the language can be found in some ancient verses and texts. It is claimed by scholars that the ancient Maithili was formed by the Siddhacharyas while composing the Charyapada around 8-9th century A.D. Maithili has rich and creative literature works. Forms of Ancient Maithili language can also be found in old Sanskrit texts that have been written by the natives of Mithila. Vidyapati is a notable and most probably the earliest writer who even though being a Sanskrit scholar, wrote various poems in Maithili which impressed the King of Darbhanga. Since then, many dramas, fiction, etc came into being which constantly led to the progress and development of the Maithili language.
The major concern for the language is the language speakers itself, who do not prefer it using on a daily basis. Also, the state government has no good plans for the development of the language. There is no unity among the native speakers of Maithili and a large amount of migration is observed in these regions. It is believed by some of the natives that due to political intervention and inconvenience, Maithili has a minority status in Bihar. Some native speakers have started residing in the metropolitan cities like Delhi, Bangalore, Kolkata and Mumbai. There is no daily newspaper in Maithili and there are only a few journals in Maithili which are periodical in nature and not published regularly.
While disparity may be seen in Maithili and its dialect in India, some natives have come up with ideas and various concepts to promote Maithili and Mithila’s culture through various sites, blogs, books, essays, dramas, poetry, fiction etc. Even after being taken off from the education curriculum of the state board and being neglected, some Maithils are in the quest for bringing Maithili back to its glory. Maithili still remains a majorly used language in most of the sects of northern Bihar and is being noticed due to the various efforts being made for its propagation.
Here is the Wikipedia link for Maithili Language.